The 21st century scientific agenda is evolving from numerous sources3,
B2BI seeks to address at least these four major themes
within the six Core Regions of the North Atlantic-Arctic oceanic regions:

Improve the analysis and forecasting of the ocean state on all time scales and including changing climate, both globally and locally

Focused on the dynamic interaction between the actions of societies and the global climate system, by addressing the ocean state and its forecasting and projection in an earth system framework as a continuum in time and space – and ask questions like: How can risks be reduced in current marine operations? How are the Earth’s massive ice sheets changing? How fast will sea level rise and affect coastal regions around the world? What are the impacts on rainfall, extreme weather events, flooding and drought? How do changes in ecosystems and their services affect humankind? How do changes in landscapes and water resources impact humankind’s future? What are the consequences for important oceanic (e.g., fisheries) and marine systems (e.g., coastal wetlands, estuaries, and coral reefs) from higher levels of CO2 from the consequential increases in ocean acidification?

Changes in Relevant Socio-Economic Systems

Humankind is nested in global-scale socio-economic changes (e.g., the globalization of many aspects of modern civilization) that affects business and governance over a wide range of foundational issues essential to us, the origins of which range from population increases, demographic shifts to the availability of energy, food and water.

Challenges that Impact Human Health and Societal Well-being

The health of humans and of civil societies are affected by changes in ocean state extremes and in increasing temperatures and precipitation, with consequences such as enhanced risk of waterborne and food-borne diseases and allergies, and the proliferation of insects that spread diseases like Zika, West Nile, dengue and Lyme disease into new territories. Extreme weather and climate-related natural disasters (e.g., floods and draughts) are affecting vulnerable populations, such as the elderly, children and lower-income communities.

Geopolitical Realities, Governance Issues and Treaties

Determine the evolvement of (a) economic, environmental and social disruptions that are likely to continue to accelerate, (b) global knowledge-based socio-economic societies, (c) new management and operating models, (d) a greater demand for transparency and accountability, and (e) the expectation for returns on financial and programmatic investments.

3Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development